Robotics C++ Physics II AP Physics B Electronics Java Astronomy Other Courses Summer Session  




Part a

Part b

Part c

Part d



Part a


Measuring Voltage




To accurately measure the voltage of


ð  individual cells and batteries

ð  cells and batteries in series.


Equipment for this lab - per team


1 digital multimeter

3 9 volt batteries

1 breadboard

Wire wrap connectors


Lab Requirements


Measuring Voltage of Individual Cells and Cells in Series


1.  Use the digital voltmeter to measure the voltage of the individual 9 V batteries. Create a neat and well-organized data sheet and record the readings. 


2.  Use the digital voltmeter to measure the total voltage, in series, of the 9 volt batteries you measured individually above.


3.  Using the individual measurements in part 1 above and Kirchoff's law, calculate the expected total voltage in series.

4.  Compare the measured total voltage from part 2 with the calculated total voltage from part 3.

5.  Explain and differences found between measured and calculated voltages from part 4 above.


Turn In


Lab report and initialed data sheet.


Part b


Using the breadboard

Address each of the following requirements in your report


Each team has been given three 56 kW resistors, a breadboard, a 9 V battery with connector, two clip-on probe inserts, and a box of precut wires.


Part 1: Measuring resistance using the ohmmeter

The resistor is removed from circuit to calculate (power supply not connected)


1.  Verification of resistors using color code

     Using the color code in your notebook, verify that the resistors are as stated above.

     Do this by converting the color code. Show your work in the report.

     Determine the tolerance of the resistors.


2.  Measurement of resistors and verification that they are within tolerance

     Assemble the 3 resistors in a series configuration on the breadboard and measure

     the resistance of each. State this resistance in your report.

     State the resistance for each and whether it is within tolerance.


3.  Total resistance

     Calculate the total resistance.

     Measure the resistance.

     Include the values in your report and discuss any differences.


Part 2: Measuring voltage drop using the voltmeter

The connection is in parallel with the circuit (power supply connected - only after connections have been made)


1. Attach the 9 V power supply (only after circuit has been assembled)


2.  Calculate the voltage drop that should occur across each resistor.


3.  Measure the voltage drop across each resistor and explain any differences.


Part c: Measuring current using the ammeter

The ammeter must be placed in series with the circuit (power supply connected - after connections have been made)


1.  Calculate the voltage of the battery


2.  Calculate the current that should be flowing through the circuit.


3.  Measure the current that is flowing through the circuit.


4.  Compare the two currents and explain any differences.



Part c



1. To measure the total voltage supplied by individual batteries, batteries in series, and

    batteries in parallel using the breadboard.

2. To measure the voltage across resistors in parallel using the breadboard.

3. Current calculation and measurement.


Requirement  for All Labs

ð  All measurements for all labs must be included in your report. Place them in a neat

     and appropriately labeled table. The completed raw data sheet must be initialed by

     me prior to leaving the lab. It must be attached to your final lab report.

ð  Teams work together but all lab reports must be submitted individually.

ð  All lab reports must be typed with name, date, and lab number at the top.

ð  The specific setup used to accomplish all requirements must be clearly described.

     For example, clearly describe the specific connections used in measuring the voltage

     of batteries in series and parallel (+ connection goes where, negative connection

     goes where), and the configuration of the resistors

ð  Draw and clearly label a circuit diagram using the software provided for all circuit

     configurations. Include the batteries and the resistors.



Each team will have access to three 56 kW resistors, a breadboard, two 9 V batteries, 2 battery connectors, a multimeter, and a box of precut wires.



ð  Measure the voltage of each of the two 9 volt batteries.

ð  Connect the batteries in parallel and measure the voltage provided.

ð  Connect the batteries in series in measure the voltage provided.

ð  Construct a parallel circuit consisting of the series connection for the batteries

     with each of the three resistors in a parallel configuration.

ð  Measure the voltage across each resistor.

ð  Calculate the equivalent resistance of the 3 resistors in parallel (use the resistor      

     values you obtained last lab when you measured the resistance of each resistor - or

     measure them again).

ð  Using the equivalent resistance, calculate the current in the circuit.

ð  Can you measure the current? If so, measure it and compare it to the above

     calculated value. If not, state the reason.


Format for All Labs

Use the exact paragraph titles as shown below


1. Problem statement: Clear statement of what you are trying to do

2. Hypothesis: Suggested explanation of the observed phenomenon

3. Approach: Short summary of how you plan to solve the problem     

4. Data recorded: Data obtained from the experiment – turn in your initialed data sheet.

5. Analysis of the data: What the data means

6. Conclusion:

     a. What conclusions do you draw from the above analysis.

     b. What are possible sources of error.

     c. What are some suggestions for future work in this area. 



Lab 3-4