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Part 1: Prolog


¢    Prolog stands for __________________________________________________________ programming in logic.


¢    Visual Prolog and other Prolog dialects are based on _______________________ logic.  This  logic is a formal system for reasoning about things and the way they relate to each other.  Horn Clause


¢    The statement John is the father of Bill is formalized in Prolog as


father("Bill", "John").


¢    Given the following


X is the grandfather of Z, if X is the father of Y and Y is the father of Z

where X, Y and Z are persons.


Express this rule in Prolog


grandFather(Person, GrandFather) :-

    father(Person, Father), father(Father, GrandFather).



¢    Statements like "John is the father of Bill" are called _______________________



¢    Statements like "X is the grandfather of Z, if X is the father of Y and Y is the father of Z" are called ________________________________________rules.


¢    The above 2 items taken together are called _________________________________ theory


¢    The symbol :- means_____________________________________ if


¢    The symbol , means______________________________________ and


¢    The symbol ; means________________________________________ or


¢    We have been using PIE, a component of Visual Prolog. PIE stands for



Prolog Inference Engine


¢    Translate the following in plain English


parent(Person, Parent) :-

    mother(Person, Parent);

    father(Person, Parent).


Parent is the parent of Person, if Parent is the mother of Person or Parent is the father of Person



¢    Define failing as used in Prolog


A predicate invocation might not have any solution in the theory, for example calling parent("Hans", X) has no solution as there are no parent facts or rules that applies to "Hans". We say that the predicate call fails. If the goal fails then there is simply no solution to the goal in the theory.


¢    Define backtracking as used in Prolog


During the execution of a program a lot of alternative choices (known as backtrack points) might exist from earlier predicate calls. If some predicate call fails, then we will backtrack to the last backtrack point we met and try the alternative solution instead. If no further backtrack points exists then the overall goal has failed, meaning that there was no solution to it.




Part 2: Course Text


¢    The text states that the definition of AI falls into 4 categories – state them below


      Ø  ______________________________________________________________________


      Ø  ______________________________________________________________________


      Ø  ______________________________________________________________________


      Ø  ______________________________________________________________________


Thinking humanly, thinking rationally, acting humanly, acting rationally


Which approach is advocated by the text?


acting rationally



¢    An example of one of these categories was listed as the Turing Test Approach. Describe this test.





¢    Define agent.


Anything that can be viewed as perceiving its environment through sensors and acting upon that environment through actuators.


¢    Define percept


The agent’s perceptual inputs at any given instant.


¢    The text describes 4 different type of agents. One of these is simple reflex. List the other 3


      Ø  ______________________________________ model-based reflex


      Ø  ______________________________________ goal-based


      Ø  ______________________________________ utility-based


¢    Define rational agent.


One that does the right thing. For each possible percept sequence, a rational agent should select an action that is expected to maximize its performance measure, given the evidence provided by the percept sequence and whatever built-in knowledge the agent has.


¢    Define autonomous agent.


An agent is autonomous if its behavior is determined by its own experience (with ability to learn and adapt)


¢    What does the acronym PEAS stand for?


Performance measure, Environment, Actuators, Sensors



¢    Describe the difference between a simple reflex agent and a model-based reflex agent.


Simple agents respond directly to percepts, whereas model-based reflex agents maintain internal state to track aspects of the world that are not evident in the current percept.


¢    Describe a depth first search


This search always expands the deepest node in the current fringe of the search tree. The search proceeds immediately to the deepest level of the search tree.








¢    The text describes 3 environment types. One of these is Fully Observable. List the other two


      Ø  ______________________________________________


      Ø _______________________________________________


static, discrete, single agent, episodic, deterministic



¢    Describe a breadth-first search


A strategy in which the root node is expanded first, then all the successors of the root node are expanded next, then their successors, and so on.


¢    Define the word heuristic as used in AI






¢    Describe how a problem is solved using genetic algorithms